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THE JET AGE RESERVE MODEL COLLECTION

PRESENTS

EASTER PARADE 2010

 
 

   
  The announcement of Open Days at the Brockworth Tithe Barn Arts and Crafts Centre over Easter 2010 gave the Jet Age Reserve Model Collection an opportunity to display many items rarely or never seen in public in the 21st Century.  These were arranged in national themes and are described below.
 
 

   
 

The announcement of Open Days at the Brockworth Tithe Barn Arts and Crafts Centre over Easter 2010 gave the Jet Age Reserve Model Collection an opportunity to display many items rarely or never seen in public in the 21st Century.  These were arranged in national themes and are described below.
 
 

   
 
LUFTWAFFE  
 

   
FOCKE-WULF FW 190

Of the two Focke-Wulf Fw190 Wurger (Butcher Bird ) models in the Jet Age Rserve Collection, the 1/32 scale example seen nearest the camera above represents the earlier versions of the renowned Luftwaffe fighter.


Of the two Focke-Wulf Fw190 Wurger (Butcher Bird ) models in the Jet Age Rserve Collection, the 1/32 scale example seen nearest the camera above represents the earlier versions of the renowned Luftwaffe fighter.

In the autumn of 1937 the Reichluftministerium ordered the Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau to develop a new single-seat fighter to supplement the Messerschmitt Bf 109, this company being chosen as it was not extensively committed to the development of other combat aircraft and possessed a highly qualified design team headed by Dipl.Ing.Kurt Tank.

Tank's design team prepared two proposals; one based on the Daimler-Benz DB601 liquid-cooled engine and the other on the BMW 801 air-cooled radial engine. At that time the radial engine was not favoured as a fighter power plant owing to its drag and the restrictions that its bulk placed upon forward view during taking-off and landing. General Ernst Udet's decision to proceed with the development of the radial-engined fighter thus came as a profound surprise to Tank and his colleagues.

Despite Udet's faith, the BMW 801 had a tendency to overheat although this was cured with a revised cooling fan and moving the cockpit backwards.to compensate for the prime mover's greater weight.  The Fw 190 was also popular with pilots due to the undercarriage having a wider track than the Me 109 and also a clear rear canopy, allowing pilots to keep an excellent lookout for enemy fighters.

The Fw 190 prototype first flew on 1 June1939 and production deliveries began in late 1940. Within a year, Fw l90s were making low-level sweeps over southern England in daylight, against which the Supermarine Spitfire Vs then in service achieved little success. The situation did not improve until the Royal Air Force received more powerful  Spitfire IXs in partnership with four-cannon  HawkerTyphoons.  Indeed, data gained from examination of a captured Fw 190 informed the specification of the Hawker Sea Fury.

The Fw 190 was not only faster but its superior handling and faster roll rate gave it an edge in the hands of even less experienced pilots. Such sparkling performance combined with the 190's superior armament presented Allied pilots with a real challenge until German pilot training began to drop in quality.

The standard Fw 190A was quickly modified to perform a number of roles, particularly that of fighter-bomber in the F and G versions. These deleted the outer 20 mm cannon in favor of various combinations of bomb racks or cannon pods for the MK 103 30 mm cannon. Later versions of the FW 190A featured up to six 20 mm cannon (FW 190A6R1); the A-6/R-6 had two 210 mm (8.27 in) unguided rockets with which to attack US heavy bombers.

The new war started by Hitler on the Eastern Front resulted in most of the new production Fw 190s being thrown into the fighting against the Russians. Others were needed equally urgently by Rommel in North Africa, to combat the Western Desert Air Force and Allied ground forces who, by the latter part of 1942, were pressing hard at Alamein. 

As RAF and USAAF bombing raids got heavier and heavier in Europe, new tactics were employed by some German fighter units flying Fw 190s. Against US heavy bombers on daylight raids, several Fw 190s would form a queue and approach from the rear of the bomber formation. At very close range, the fighters would then 'open up,' so giving the rear gunners in the bombers very little chance of firing methodically at all the attackers.

During 1943, the Fw 190 was encountered frequently in Europe while performing night fighter missions. About the same time, the first Fw 190s came off the production line fitted with inline, rather than radial, engines. General appearance stayed the same, because of the use of an annular radiator at the nose.



In honour of designer Kurt Tank, the Fw 190's designation was changed to Tank or Ta 152. This beautiful inline-engined fighter was to be the ultimate version of the famous fighter but delays resulted in the stopgap Fw 190D (pictured above in 1/72 scale ), in itself an outstanding aircraft. In the chaotic final year of the Third Reich the D ended up being the major inline engine version with only a few Ta 152Hs, and possibly a few Ta 152Cs, getting into combat.



The new Junkers Jumo 213 powerplant made the aircraft, once again, the fastest Luftwaffe operational fighter and those pilots with the skill to use such advantages did very well. Unfortunately excellent fighter designs could not compensate for poor production standards, lack of fuel, poor pilot training and overwhelming Allied numerical superiority.

In honour of designer Kurt Tank, the Fw 190's designation was changed to Tank or Ta 152. This beautiful inline-engined fighter was to be the ultimate version of the famous fighter but delays resulted in the stopgap Fw 190D (pictured above in 1/72 scale ), in itself an outstanding aircraft. In the chaotic final year of the Third Reich the D ended up being the major inline engine version with only a few Ta 152Hs, and possibly a few Ta 152Cs, getting into combat.

The extended wing (14.5m), high altitude Ta 152H was indeed a sterling performer with a top speed of 755 km/h (472 mph) and a service ceiling of 15,000 m (49,215 ft). It was armed with a 30 mm cannon in the nose and two 20 mm cannon in the wing roots. 

Had it been built in enough numbers and been flown by expert pilots it could have taken its place alongside the Me 262 as a near unbeatable air superiority fighter and bomber killer. The lower altitude version, the Ta 152C, barely made it out of the test phase before the war ended. Between October 1944 and February 1945 when production ended, Focke-Wulf managed to roll 67 completed Ta 152 aircraft (H-0, H-1, and C-1 models) off the line. By the end of the war, more than 20,000 Fw 190s had been built; about one-third as fighter bombers.



HENSCHEL 123


 
The Henschel-produced Hs 123 became the last single seat operational biplane of the Luftwaffe during World War Two yet was conceived as early as 1933 and first flew on 1 April 1935. 
 
 

   

The Henschel-produced Hs 123 became the last single seat operational biplane of the Luftwaffe during World War Two yet was conceived as early as 1933 and first flew on 1 April 1935.

The Hs 123A-1 boasted two fixed forward-firing 7.92mm machine guns above the BMW 132Dc radial engine, muntings under the fueslage for an external fuel tank or bomb and four additional hardpoints under the lower wings.

Five Henschel 123s were tested by the Condor Legion in the 1936-1939 Spanish Civil War - producing refinements in the design which would eventually see combat in the invasions of Poland, Belgium, France, and the Soviet Union with the Luftwaffe.  However, an Hs 123B was cancelled in favour of the Junkers Ju87 Stuka monoplane although the Hs 123 would not be withdrawn from operations until 1944.




FIESELER Fi 156 STORCH  
 

   
 
 First flown in 1936, the Fi 156 Storch ( Stork ) was an army co-operation transport with a remarkable capacity of short take offs and landings - never matched by any Allied aircraft and made obsolete only by the later popularity of the helicopter.  Indeed, of 60 Storches captured during the Second World War one became the personal transport of Field Marshall Bernard Law Montgomery.
 
 

   
 

First flown in 1936, the Fi 156 Storch ( Stork ) was an army co-operation transport with a remarkable capacity of short take offs and landings - never matched by any Allied aircraft and made obsolete only by the later popularity of the helicopter.  Indeed, of 60 Storches captured during the Second World War one became the personal transport of Field Marshall Bernard Law Montgomery.

In response to the 1935 Luftwaffe requirement for a general utility aircraft, Fieseler designed the aircraft around  a modern mechanized wing with full-length slats, fowler-type flaps -  increasing the wing area by 18 % and ailerons that dropped when the flaps were extended past 20 degrees. The long, spindly undercarriage gave the plane - fitted with shock absorbers to give an 18" travel - the ability to stall-land in all sorts of awkward places at only 32 mph.  In addition Fieseler engineers Rheinhold Mewes and Erich Bachen designed the wings of the Storch to fold back for towing and easy storage.

The Storch gained fame already before the war by public displays like stunt landings during military parades on Berlin's Unter den Linden. However, the most famous Storch performance was that of hazardous rescue of  Benito Mussolini from captivity in a remote castle high up in the Apenine mountains. The Storch used as VIP transport in this mission landed and started on a plateau only about 20 metres long.   

Similarly, on 26 April 1945, test pilot Hanna Reitsch flew a Storch into Berlin's Tiergarten  to allow Field Marshall Robert Ritter von Griem to take control of the Luftwaffe from Hermann Goring.  Meanwhile, another Storch came off worst in the last dogfght of the Second World War: the crew landing and surrendering after being shot at with handguns by Lieutenants Duane Francis and Bill Martin from their USAAF L-4 Grasshopper.

Almost 2,900 Storchs were built between 1937 and 1945 by Fieseler Werke in Kassel and  Morane-Saulnier in Puteaux, occupied France.

 
 

   

MESSERSCHMITT BF 109E


 
Like most aircraft that were to make a name for themselves, the Messerschmitt Bf 109 had many variants. The original was the Bf 109 V1 designed in 1935 and was the first all metal stressed skin fighter in the World to enter service. Powered by a 695 hp Rolls Royce Kestrel power plant, it also had a single seat enclosed cockpit and a retractable undercarriage. The following two variants, the Bf109 V2 and the Bf109 V3 had a 680hp Junkers Jumo 210A power plant. Both these variants were flying by June 1936.
 
 

   
 
Like most aircraft that were to make a name for themselves, the Messerschmitt Bf 109 had many variants. The original was the Bf 109 V1 designed in 1935 and was the first all metal stressed skin fighter in the World to enter service. Powered by a 695 hp Rolls Royce Kestrel power plant, it also had a single seat enclosed cockpit and a retractable undercarriage. The following two variants, the Bf109 V2 and the Bf109 V3 had a 680hp Junkers Jumo 210A power plant. Both these variants were flying by June 1936.

By December 1936 V4 and V5 variants were sent to Spain for evaluation and testing and they were redesignated to Bf109B-0 being powered by Jumo 210D engines and armed with two 7.9mm machine guns.

The first operational Bf109s to see operational service with the Legion Condor in Spain was the 109B but by early 1938 the Bf 109C had entered service having a fuel injected Jumo 210Ga and the addition of two additional machine guns. The Bf109D followed in 1938 which was equipped with the carburettor fitted Jumo 210Da.

Many of the Bf109 aircraft in their development stage still carried the V series designation, and the 1937 vintage Bf109 V10 used the carburettor fitted Daimler Benz DB 600A. After further experimental aircraft had been used, the Bf109 V15 was fitted with the all new 1,175 hp Daimler Benz DB 601A engine with direct fuel injection.

This variant was designated the Bf109E-1, the Messerschmitt Bf109E-3 being introduced in late 1938. The difference between the E-1 and the E-3 was the addition of two 20mm MG FF canon at the expense of two of the machine guns. By the end of 1939 some 1,540 machines had been built with nearly 50 seeing service in the Spanish Civil War.

Throughout the 1940 Battle of Britain, the Bf109E-4 ( with improved canon ) was no doubt one of the worlds greatest single-seat single-engine fighters and a match for the Hawker Hurricane and - possibly - for the Supermarine Spitfire of the Royal Air Force.

Other variants were the Bf 109E-4/B which was a fighter-bomber version that carried one 550lb or four 110lb bombs. The Bf109E-4/N gave slightly improved performance when the DB 601Aa engine was replaced by the 1200hp DB 601N. The Bf109E-5 and the Bf109E-6 were used and fitted out as reconnaissance fighters being fitted with camera equipment, the Bf109E-5 also having the cannon removed.

The E variant of Bf109 were used extensively until early 1942, where, with the Bf109F and Bf109G they gave way to the Bf109K in which the pre-series Bf109K-0 was to appear in September 1944.

It is also interesting to note, that a variant of the Bf109E was intended for use on the planned Nazi aircraft carriers Graf Zeppelin and Peter Strasser. Here the wing span was increased as well as the leading edge slats and ailerons, flap travel was also increased and break points were incorporated for the folding of the wings, and an arrester hook fitted at the rear. This carrier version was designated the Bf109 T ( for "Träger" or in English, "Carrier" ) Originally ten Bf109E aircraft were converted as Bf109T variants, while about sixty were actually manufactured as Bf109T.

 
 

   
 
 FOCKE-WULF FW 56 STOSSER  
 

   
 
 The Focke-Wulf Fw 56 Stosser ( Goshawk ), first flown in November 1933, was developed as a small home-defence fighter but its main role was as an advanced fighter trainer. About 1,000 were produced by 1940. It was also one of the first aircraft designed by the famous Kurt Tank and also his first warplane for Focke-Wulf.
 
 

   

 

The Focke-Wulf Fw 56 Stosser ( Goshawk ), first flown in November 1933, was developed as a small home-defence fighter but its main role was as an advanced fighter trainer. About 1,000 were produced by 1940. It was also one of the first aircraft designed by the famous Kurt Tank and also his first warplane for Focke-Wulf.

The company was founded in Bremen on 23 October 1923 as Bremer Flugzeugbau AG by Prof. Heinrich Focke, Georg Wulf and Dr. rer. pol. Werner Naumann ( not to be confused with Dr. rer. nat. Werner Naumann, state secretary in Joseph Goebbel's Propagandaministerium).

Almost immediately, Professor Focke and his colleagues renamed their company Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau AG and later Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau GmbH. Initially it produced several commercial aircraft, typically with thick wings mounted high over bulky fuselages, and it was testing one of these that Georg Wulf died on 29 September 1927.

In 1931, under Nazi government pressure, Focke-Wulf merged with Albatros-Flugzeugwerke and headhunted the Berlin based firm's resourceful engineer and test pilot Kurt Tank to become to lead its technical department. He immediately started work on the two seat civilian Fw44 Stieglitz (Goldfinch).

The first fully controllable helicopter (as opposed to autogyro) was the Focke-Wulf Fw 61, demonstrated by test pilot Hanna Reitsch in 1936 in Berlin. In 1937 shareholders ousted Heinrich Focke, and he founded, with Gerd Achgelis, Focke Achgelis to specialise in helicopters.

Meanwhile Tank had designed and produced the four engined passenger-carrying Fw 200 Kondor (Condor) which could fly the Atlantic non-stop. It was later used as a bomber and the personal transport of Adolf Hitler.

Kurt Tank's Fw 190 Würger (Butcher-bird), designed from 1938 on and produced in quantity from early 1941 to 1945, was a mainstay single-seat fighter for the Luftwaffe.

 
 

   
 
 MESSERSCHMITT BF 110G  


The Messerschmitt Bf 110  has often been criticized for its failure as an escort fighter during the Battle of Britain while its successes as a fighter-bomber, reconnaissance, ground attack and night fighter roles have often been overlooked.


The Messerschmitt Bf 110  has often been criticized for its failure as an escort fighter during the Battle of Britain while its successes as a fighter-bomber, reconnaissance, ground attack and night fighter roles have often been overlooked.

The long-range multi-seat escort fighter is possibly the most difficult of combat aircraft to design and no entirely successful machine in this category emerged from the Second World War.  However, such a machine as was required by Marshal Goering to equip the elite zerstorer ( destroyer) formations that he envisaged had to be capable of penetrating deep into enemy territory to accompany bomber formations. The fuel tankage necessary presented a serious weight penalty, and called for the use of two engines if the zerstorer was to achieve a performance approaching that of the lighter interceptor fighter by which it would be opposed. Yet it had to be manaoeuvrable, if it was to successfully fend off the enemy's single-seaters.

Professor Willy Messerschmitt of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke at Augsburg possessed no previous experience with twin-engined military aircraft when he commenced work on the Bf 110 at the end of 1934.  Indeed, his first warplane, the single-seat Bf 109, had been conceived only the previous summer and he was forced to rely on the yet unproven Daimler Benz DB600 twelve cylinder liquid cooled inverted vee engine to produce the 1 000 bhp needed for the new zerstorer, which first flew on 12 May 1936.

Although not enough powerplants were available to allow the Bf 110 to be tested in the Spanish Civil War, research in Germany during 1937 showed Messerschmitt's zerstorer to be very fast but not as agailas hoped.  Despite this, the Bf 110C - powered by two DB 601A engines of 1 100 bhp apiece - entered Luftwaffe service in 1939.

By the time Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, ten Luftwaffe Gruppen had been equipped with the Bf 110 which were used largely for ground support.

In the long-range escort fighter role however, the Bf 110C received a disastrous mauling at the hands of the more nimble Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire during the Battle of Britain - during which Me 109 fighters had to leave the bombers they were supposed to be escorting to protect their twin engined stablemates.

Although the Bf 110s had failed in their primary task, production continued at a high rate, and by 1945 no fewer than 6,150 had been built, ranging from Bf 110As to Gs. As later models became available, the early Bf 110Cs and Ds were transferred to the Middle East and Eastern Front.

Both the C and D models had almost disappeared from the European theatre by the summer of 1941, although they were being used extensively on the Russian front and in the Middle East. Production during 1940 had risen to 1,083 machines, but with the impending introduction of the Me 210, only 784 machines were produced in 1941. 

It was in a Bf 110 that Rudolf Hess, Deputy Fuhrer of Germany, flew solo to Scotland on the night of 10 May 1941, without Hitler's knowledge, in the hope of negotiating peace terms with Britain.

The Bf 110Es were capable of carrying a respectable bomb load of 4,410 lb (2,000 kg) as fighter-bombers, while straight fighter and reconnaissance versions were also built. These, and later versions, were operated with a fair degree of success in many war zones. The Bf 110F was basically similar to the E, but two new variants were produced—the 110F-2 carrying rocket projectiles, and the F-4 with two 30 mm cannon, and an extra crew member for night fighting. 

However, after numerous accidents halted the Me 210 programme, the gap in Luftwaffe fighter defences was plugged with the G series of Bf 110s, fitted with DB 605 engines developing  1 475 bhp at takeoff and  1 355 at 18 700 feet.

 The pre-production Bf 110G-0 fighter-bomber was delivered for service evaluation late in 1942, and from early in 1943, G-series machines were encountered in increasing numbers. Apart from its engines the first production model, the Bf 110G-1, was similar to earlier fighter-bomber variants, and the G-2 differed principally in the armament installed: two or four 20-mm. MG 151 cannon and four 7.9-mm. MG 17 in the nose plus two 7.9-mm. MG 81 in the rear cockpit.

From time to time, Bf 110G night fighters  - some of which were fitted with airborne interception radar aerials on the nose - were used on day operations. They were first employed as close escort to the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau off the Dutch coast and Heligoland Bight, and in the summer of 1943 and intercepted American day-bomber formations whenever the latter flew unescorted.   However, the BF 110G was no match for the Republic P-47 Thunderbolts that escorted the USAAF bombers to Berlin.



HEINKEL 111


The first prototype He 111 first flew in February 1935 as an enlarged, twin-engine version of the single-engine  1933 vintage He 70 mail plane, which had set 8 world speed records. The second prototype, the He 111 V2 had shorter wings and was the first civil transport prototype, capable of carrying 10 passengers and mail. The third prototype,He 111 V3 also had shorter wings and was the first true bomber prototype. Six He 111C  series airliners were derived from the fourth prototype, the He 111 V4 and went into service with Lufthansa in 1936, powered by a variety of engines including BMW 132 radials.

When World War I ended, the German Air Force was disbanded under the Treaty of Versailles, which required the German government to abandon all military aviation by 1 October 1919.

However, by 1922, it was legal for Germany to design and manufacture commercial aircraft, and one of the first modern medium bombers to emerge from this process was the Heinkel He 111.

The first prototype He 111 first flew in February 1935 as an enlarged, twin-engine version of the single-engine  1933 vintage He 70 mail plane, which had set 8 world speed records. The second prototype, the He 111 V2 had shorter wings and was the first civil transport prototype, capable of carrying 10 passengers and mail. The third prototype,He 111 V3 also had shorter wings and was the first true bomber prototype. Six He 111C  series airliners were derived from the fourth prototype, the He 111 V4 and went into service with Lufthansa in 1936, powered by a variety of engines including BMW 132 radials.

The first production models had an orthodox stepped windshield and an elliptical wing, as favoured by designers, Siegfried and Walter Gunter although the turning point for the bomber version of the He 111 was the installation of 1,000 hp Daimler Benz DB 600A engines in 1936.   The first two mass-production versions, He 111E and F experienced great success with the Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War and were able to outrun many of the fighters sent against them.

In fact, the experience in Spain generated a false sense of security in which the Germans thought that the He 111's light armament and speed would be sufficient in the coming war. Thus, although it was out of date, the large numbers in which it had been produced made the He 111 the Luftwaffe's primary bomber for far too long in the war, availability being more persuasive than practicality for this serviceable, but highly vulnerable, aircraft.

Modern fighters like the Supermarine Spitfire and the Hawker Hurricane proved the He 111's inadequacy during the Battle of Britain. As soon as possible, the Luftwaffe replaced the Heinkel with the Junkers Ju 88, reassigning the Heinkel to night operations and other specialized tasks until, by war's end, it was being used primarily as a transport.

More than 7,300 had been built for the Luftwaffe by autumn, 1944, with another 236 He 111 H (as modelled here)  being built by the Spanish manufacturer, CASA, during and after the war as the CASA 2.111.

Some of these Spanish built aircraft were fitted with Jumo 211 engines, and later examples with Rolls-Royce Merlins. In service with the Luftwaffe from 1937 to 1945, the Heinkels remained in Spanish service until 1965 and were later used in the 1969 Guy Hamilton film "The Battle of Britain".