FLYING DOWN TO CHELTENHAM
has been discussed in the first article on Terminal
1, the air side of the N gauge exhibition layout
was incorporated with visiting models in mind -
and for it debut at the October 2009 Cheltenham GWR Modeller's
Exhibition my good friend Tony Neuls kindly lent me four tail-engined
jet airliners - together with an example of the pioneering De Havilland
Comet 4B - as counterpoint
to the Vickers
VC10 described in more detail in other pages of
|BRITISH AIRCRAFT CORPORATION ONE-ELEVEN G-AVYZ|
as a Rolls Royce Spey powered jet replacement for the Vickers
Viscount, the twin engined One
Eleven began life as the 48 seat, 1 000 mile range, Hunting H107 design concept, thus
it a larger cousin of the Provost and Jet Provost families of single
engined ab initio military training aircraft.
Further developed by Vickers at Weybridge - following the cancellation of the similar VC11 short haul derivative of the VC10 - the resulting BAC One-Eleven became both the first and the only aircraft wholly designed and built by the British Aircraft Corporation between its foundation in 1960 and Nationalisation (along with Hawker Siddeley) in 1977 when British Aerospace was formed. Indeed, its designation was intended to show that it was the eleventh Vickers commercial aircraft and BAC's first. When the prototype G-ASGH first flew from Hurn on 20 August 1963 the BAC One-Eleven also became the World's first purpose designed short-haul jet airliner, a year ahead of its American rival McDonnell Douglas DC-9
In May 1961 the British Aircraft Corporation - which had absorbed the aerospace interests of both Vickers and Hunting - launched the One-Eleven on the back of an order from British United Airways. With 60 orders ( over half of which were from US airlines ) at the time of its maiden flight the One-Eleven achieved a European first for numbers sold at such an early stage in the programme's life.
Then, on 22 October 1963 G-ASGH crashed during stall testing near Chicklade ( south of Warminster, Wiltshire ) with the loss of all on board, including test pilot Mike Lithgow, who had previously set up a World Air Speed Record in the Supermarine Swift in 1953.
The investigation into the loss of G-ASGH led to the identification of what became known as deep stall or superstall, a phenomenon caused by reduced airflow to the T-section tail due to the combined blanking effects of the wing and the aft-mounted engine nacelles at high angles of attack, which prevents recovery of normal (nose-down) flight.
In fact this phenomenon had first been discovered with the fatal loss of the second Gloster Javelin prototype WD808 near Flax Bourton, Bristol, on 11 June 1953. Test pilot Peter Lawrence ejected at too low an altitude for his parachute to open after staying with WD808 to avoid crashing into schoolchildren playing in a field. During the 60 second descent from 11 000 feet the auto observer recorded zero airspeed.
To obviate superstall, BAC designed and added devices known as stick shakers and stick pushers to the One-Eleven's control system which would also include hydraulically assisted elevators. It also redesigned the wing's leading edge to smooth airflow into the engines and over the tailplane. Super stall is an aerodynamic possibility for other aircraft with similar high set T-section tailplanes such as the Vickers VC10 although is less likely with mid-set tails such as those found on the older Sud Aviation Caravelle and more conventional de Havilland Comet 4.
Despite the loss of G-ASGH the first production BAC One-Eleven G-ASJI was delivered to British United Airways on 22 January 1965 and made its first revenue earning flight to Genoa, Italy on 9 April that year. The 79 passenger jetliner was powered by Rolls Royce Spey 506 turbofans and entered service with Braniff, Mohawk and Aer Lingus later the same year.
The last British Airways BAC One-Eleven flew in 1998 and the final example was grounded in 2002.
In May 1963 BAC announced two new versions of the One-Eleven; the Series 300 and Series 400, both of which offered more powerful Spey 511-14s of 50.7 kN thrust, fitted into lengthened nacelles. Although dimensions were the same as the 80 seat Series 200, the Series 300 offered longer range by virtue of an additional centre section fuel tank and a higher maximum take-off weight. The first 300 series aircraft (G-ATPJ , BAC constructors number 033) flew from Weybridge on 20 May 1966.
The first delivery went to British Eagle International Airways (G-ATPJ c/n 033) on 8 June 1966 while Laker Airways received their first aircraft on the 25 February 1967. The Series 300 was only ordered by three customers: British Eagle, Laker - and Kuwait Airways, who cancelled their order. The last aircraft was delivered to Laker (G-AVYZ cn 133, as modelled by Tony) on 11 April 1968. A total of 9 Series 300 aircraft were built.
Founded in 1966, Laker began as a World wide passenger and freight charter airline but went on to become the first long haul, low cost "no frills" airline connecting London Gatwick and New York John F. Kennedy airports from 1977 to 1982.Five BAC One Eleven 300s replaced two Bristol Britannias in the Laker fleet from December 1967 and spent many years flying to the Canary Islands and Mediterranean holiday resorts. G-AVYZ touched down for the last time on 25 February 1982.
On the 3rd May 1967 Austral Compañia Argentina de Transportes Aéreos S.A placed the first South American order for British Aircraft Corporation One-Eleven airliners. The initial order was for four Series 420ELs both for its own use and for Aerotransportes Litoral Argentino SA – ALA - with an option on two longer fuselage Series 500 aircraft.
At the time the order was placed Austral had a 30% holding in ALA and the routes of the two companies had been integrated by the time the One-Elevens came on strength although marketing themselves as two separate companies. ALA specialised in destinations to the north and northwest of the country and additionally flew international routes to Antofagasta in Chile and to Asuncion in Paraguay using the ‘SG’ flight prefix. Austral specialised in routes to the south and west of the country and also flew international schedules to Montevideo in Uruguay using the ‘AU’ flight prefix.
The aircraft were delivered in a single class 74 seat configuration, two of which went to Austral in October and November 1967 (LV-IZR and LV-IZS) one to ALA in September 1968 (LV-JGX) and a third to Austral in December 1968 (LV-JGY) all in their own company colour schemes. ALA also leased a Series 413FA registered G-AWGG from late November 1968, initially for crew training in the United Kingdom, until it was returned to BAC at Hurn in mid April 1969.
Austral inaugurated service with the type on 23rd October 1967 with schedules linking Buenos Aires - Aeroparque with Bahía Blanca, Comodoro Rivadavia, Córdoba, Mar del Plata, Mendoza, Mercedes, Neuquén, Río Gallegos and San Carlos de Bariloche. ALA introduced the type into service on 29th September 1968 and gradually introduced the type onto schedules from Buenos Aires to Corrientes, Formosa, Paraná, Posadas, Resistencia, Rosario, Salta, San Juan, Santa Fe and Tucumán with Salta being connected with Antofagasta in Chile. Asuncion was also served from Aeroparque via Resistencia with the One-Elevens.The video below, kindly brought to my attention by Luis De La Fuente, shows LV-IZR and the preparations for delivering these first aircraft of their type to Argentina.
|1968 also saw the introduction of a stretched version of the BAC 1-11, known
as the 500 Series or "Super 1-11", which could carry up to 119 passengers and
the more powerful engines and extended wings of this aircraft were subsequently
combined with the smaller 200 Series fuselage to create the Series 475.
This hybrid had the best performance of any of the 244 BAC 1-11s built although
like its predecessors its Spey turbofans were to fall foul of airport noise
restrictions from the 1990s onwards.
The Series 475 aircraft were designed with modified low pressure undercarriage to permit operations from rough airstrips in Third World countries although only 12 examples were built, two of which had large doors for use as freighters.
|BOEING 727 G-BAEF|
The versatility and reliability of the Boeing 727 --
first three engined jet airliner introduced into commercial
service -- made it the best-selling airliner in the world during the
first 30 years of jet transport service
On 13 January 1991, the first 727 built -- which had been in continual service with United Airlines since 1964 -- finally made its last commercial flight and was donated to the Museum of Flight in Seattle.
Introduced into service in February 1964, the 727 became an immediate hit with flight crews and passengers alike. With a fuselage width the same as the earlier four engined 707 (and the later twin engined 737 and 757), the Boeing 727 provided jet luxury on shorter routes. With sophisticated, triple-slotted trailing edge flaps and new leading-edge slats, the 727 had unprecedented low-speed landing and takeoff performance for a commercial jet and could be accommodated by smaller airports than the 707 required.
The 727, like all Boeing jetliners, was continually modified to fit the changing market. It began with the -100 series, of which 407 were sold. This was followed by the -100C convertible that featured a main-deck side cargo door, allowing it to carry either cargo pallets or passengers -- or a combination of both -- on the main deck. Boeing built 164 of these.
The 727-200, introduced in December 1967, had increased gross weight and a 20-foot longer fuselage that could accommodate as many as 189 passengers in an all-tourist configuration. In all its variations, 1,245 of the -200s were sold. The last version, the 727-200F, had a 58,000-pound, 11-pallet cargo capability. Fifteen of these were sold to Federal Express.
Structural improvements, a more powerful engine and greater fuel capacity led to the Advanced 727-200 in May 1971. This advanced series had improved payload/range capability, better runway performance and a completely restyled "widebody look" as standard equipment.
Lufthansa German Airlines and Air Algerie put 727s with the new interior into service in April 1971. Passenger response was enthusiastic, and by November 1972, this spacious interior was standard equipment on all production 707, 727 and 737 aircraft, and was offered for retrofit as well.
Later performance improvements for the 727 included another gross weight boost, from a maximum 170,000 pounds (77,122 kg) to 191,000 pounds (86,600 kg) for the Advanced version. On February 3, 1972, another increase to 208,000 pounds (94,348 kg) was announced, together with the purchase of three of the "heavyweights" by Sterling Airways of Denmark. The 727's highest gross weight was eventually raised to 210,000 pounds (95,300 kg).
The 727 became the best-selling airliner in history when orders passed the 1,000 mark in September 1972. By January 1983, orders reached 1,831. One Boeing-owned test airplane brought the grand total to 1,832. Today, the Boeing 737 has surpassed that total, but the 727 holds a permanent place in the annals of aviation as one of the most significant airplanes in the development of the world's jet transportation system.
On 5 December 1977, the worldwide 727 fleet carried its one billionth (1,000,000,000) passenger -- a mark never attained before by a commercial aircraft. Today, the number has reached well over 4 billion.
One hundred and one customers purchased new 727s from Boeing, although dozens more have placed the airplane type into service as "second tier" operators. More than 300 727s built as passenger airplanes have been converted to freighters, a process that continues today.DAN-AIR Services was founded in 1953 by a British shipping agency: Davies and Newman Ltd. Like so many they started with a Douglas DC-3 from their Southend base but in 1955 the headquarters was moved to Blackbushe and Avro Yorks were introduced. DAN-AIR Engineering, a maintenance subsidairy was set up at Lasham.
Routes were flown as far as Africa and even to Singapore. Scheduled services to Jersey began in 1956, aid and evacuation flights were in flown in response to the Russans invading Hungary. Bristol 170 freighters were added to the fleet along with De Havilland Doves and Airspeed Ambassadors and during the early 1960s the scheduled services had expanded from Bristol and Cardiff.
DAN-AIR stepped into the jet-age with the introduction of 3 Comet 4Bs in 1967. Later, more Comets were added along with BAC One-Elevens. Scheduled services expanded to destinations abroad: Belgium, the Netherlands and Norway and two Boeing 707s were bought for services across the Atlantic. DAN-AIR was also the first UK operator to use the Boeing 727 to replace its fuel guzzling Comets.
DAN-AIR took over Skyways International in 1972 and operations continued under the new name Dan-Air Skyways using Hawker Siddeley 748s. DANAIR survived the 1970s recession and the oil crisis and by mid-1980s was carrying over 3 000 000 passengers However, at this time many other inclusive tour operators started their own airlines and Dan-Air began to lose contracts.
The ageing fleet did not help to return to profitability, though newer Boeing 737-400s replaced the older 737s. Unprofitable routes and jobs were axed and shareholdings were sold off. In 1991 4.7 million passengers were carried but Dan-Air was still £ 35 million in the red. British Airways stepped in at the end of 1992 and took over for a symbolic £1.00.
On 21 June 1974 Dan Air's Greece-bound Boeing 727-46 G-BAEF struck the centre section of the Instrument Landing System (ILS) localiser aerial array, sited beyond the end of runway 26 of Luton Airport, and a number of the approach lights of runway 08. Although the aircraft suffered damage it climbed away successfully and later made a normal landing at Gatwick Airport.
The Pratt & Whitney JT89 7A powered G-BAEF had first flown in 1966 and carried the constructors number 18879 / 254 . It was later repaired and none of the 8 crew or 126 passengers on board were injured. G-BAEF was still flying with Dan Air in 1990 but by 1996 it had become Aero Republica Colombia HK-3840X
|DE HAVILLAND COMET IV|
A wide ranging discussion about the development and subsequent career of the De Havilland Comet 1 - first flown n 1949 and in BOAC service in 1952 - can be found on the Gloucestershire Transport bulletin boards athttp://www.visit-gloucestershire.co.uk/boards/index.php?showtopic=62&view=&hl=comet&fromsearch=1
but its improved replacement in the wake of the 1954 disasters began with Comet 2 G-AMXA, first flown on 27 August 1953.
The Comet 2 had a slightly larger wing, higher fuel capacity and more powerful Rolls Royce Avon engines which all improved the aircraft's range and performance. These aircraft were also built with heavier gauge skin and rounded openings.
The sole flying Comet 3 - G-ANLO - was a lengthened Comet 2 with greater capacity and range, which took to the air for the first time on 19 July 1954. This in turn led to a larger fleet of Comet 4s, which had even greater fuel capacity and represented a great improvement on the Comet 1.
The first Comet 4 - G-APDA , first flown on 27 April 1958 - had grown by 18 ft 6 in (5.64 m) and typically seated 74 to 81 passengers compared to the Comet 1's 36 to 44. It had a longer range, higher cruising speed, and higher maximum takeoff weight. These improvements were possible largely because of Avons with twice the thrust of the Comet 1's Ghosts. The Comet 4 was the first variant certified for passenger operation following the Comet 1 disasters.
BOAC ordered 19 Comet 4s in March 1955 and deliveries began on 30 September 1958 with two aircraft. BOAC's G-APDC initiated the first transatlantic Comet 4 service and the first scheduled transatlantic passenger jet service in history, flying from London to New York with a stopover at Gander, Newfoundland on 4 October 1958. Rival Pan American's inaugural Boeing 707 service began three weeks later.
The Comet 4B was a short range version - suitably strengthened to withstand more numerous take offs and landings - characterised by reduced wingspan, longer fuselage and new engines. Although initially flown by British European Airways and Aerolineas Argentina to name but two, Dan Air eventually became the World's sole Comet operator by the time of the last commercial flight in 1981.
G-ARJK, as modelled by Tony from the Airfix kit, carried the De Havilland constructors number 6452 and is distinguished from the other airliners in this feature by having horizontal tail surfaces at the base of its fin and four -rather than two or three - engines buried in its wing roots rather than being tail mounted.
|MCDONNELL DOUGLAS DC-9-30|
The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 twin-engine, short-haul single-aisle jet airliner first flew in February 1965.During the 1950s,the then Douglas Aircraft Company began studying a short-medium range airliner to complement its higher capacity, long range fou engined Douglas Commercial (DC) 8. A medium range, four-engine design was initially studied, but it did not receive enough interest from airlines and was abandoned.
Then, in 1960, Douglas signed a two-year contract with Sud Aviation of France for technical cooperation. As part of the agreement Douglas would help market and support the Sud Aviation Caravelle along with license-production of an American version if orders were high enough.
However, no orders were received, Douglas returned to its own design studies in 1962 and officially approved production of the DC-9 on 8 April 1963. Unlike the competing but larger three engined Boeing 727 which used as many 707 components as possible, the DC-9 was a totally new design, powered by Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofan engines.
The DC-9 was designed for smaller airports with shorter runways and less ground infrastructure than the major airports being served by larger designs like the 707 and DC-8. Like the Vickers VC-10, the tail mounted engine design facilitated a clean wing designs without engine pods, which had numerous advantages. First, flaps and slats could run the entire span of the wing, unimpeded by pods on the leading edge and engine blast concerns on the trailing edge. This simplified the design, improved airflow at low speeds and enabled lower takeoff and approach speeds, thus lowering field length requirements and keeping wing structures light. The second advantage of the tail-mounted engines was the reduction in foreign object damage from ingested debris from runways and aprons. Third, the absence of engines in underslung pods provided a reduction in ground clearance, making the aircraft more accessible to baggage handlers and passengers. Turnarounds were simplified by built-in airstairs, including one in the tail, which shortened boarding and deplaning times.
The final DC-9 was delivered in October 1982 and was followed in subsequent modified forms by the MD-80, MD-90 and Boeing 717. With the final two deliveries of the 717 in 2006, production of the DC-9 aircraft family ceased after 41 years and nearly 2,500 units built.
The -30 variant - as represented by KLM's PH-DNH "City of Zurich" was the definitive series with 662 produced, accounting for about 60% of production. The -30 entered service with Eastern Airlines of the USA in February 1967 with a 14 ft 9 in (4.5 m) fuselage stretch, wingspan increased by just over 3 ft (0.9 m) and full-span leading edge slats, improving takeoff and landing performance. Gross take-off weight was typically 110,000 lb (50,000 kg). Engine options for Models -31, -32, -33 and -34 included the P&W JT8D-7 and JT8D-9 rated at 14,500 lbf (64 kN) of thrust, or JT8D-11 rated at 15,000 lbf (67 kN) of thrust.KLM - Royal Dutch Airlines - was officially established on 7 October 1919 by Dr Albert Plesman to link The Netherlands and its Colonies. One of his favourite sayings was “The ocean of the air connects us all.”
KLM's first flight was to London on 17 May 1920 with Jerry Shaw piloting a De Havilland DH 16 - making this international air link the oldest in the World - while the first intercontinental KLM flight to Batavia ( now Jakarta ) was made by a Fokker F-VII on 1 October 1924. A Fokker XVIII named "Snip" made the first KLM Transatlantic crossing from Amsterdam to Curacao in December 1934 and the first KLM jet airliner was a Douglas DC-8 introduced in March 1960.
DC-9-30s served with KLM from November 1966 to April 1989 and wore the colour scheme modelled until 1973. All apart from the last were named after Cities as follows:
|SUD AVIATION CARAVELLE III|
The Sud Aviation SE 210 Caravelle was the first short / medium-range jet airliner, produced by Sud Aviation of France, and the first to combine rear mounted engines with clean swept wings. The Caravelle would go on to be one of the more successful European first generation jetliners, even penetrating the United States market, with an order for 20 from United Airlines.
On 12 October 1951 the French Comité du Matériel Civil (civil aircraft committee) published a specification for a medium range aircraft, which was later sent to the industry by the Direction Technique et Industrielle. This called for an aircraft carrying 55 to 65 passengers and 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) of cargo on routes up to 2,000 km with a cruise speed about 370 mph.
The type and number of engines was not specified. Various design studies for aircraft in this category had been underway since 1946 by several of the leading French aircraft manufacturing organisations, but none had the financial power to start construction.
Response from the French industry was strong, with every major manufacturer sending in at least one proposal, and a total of 20 different designs were received. From these, a concept featuring three Rolls Royce Avon engines mounted on the tail of a swept wing aircraft evolved into the Caravelle when Rolls were able to offer a more powerful version of the Avon. Sud Aviation also had technical links with De Havilland and the nose and cockpit of the Caravelle were copied from the Comet.
The first prototype of the Caravelle (F-WHHH) was rolled out on 21 April 1955, and flew on 27 May.
Sud Aviation would later work on a faster than sound Super Caravelle which would later merge with a similar Bristol Aircraft design to produce Concorde.The Caravelle III first flew on 30 December 1959, was powered by a yet more powerful version of the Rolls Royce Avon engine and was the best selling of all Caravelle variants. Airlines using the Caravelle III included Alitalia, Air France, Swissair, SAS and Royal Air Maroc as well as a sole example - 9U-BTA ( constructors number 144 and still flying in 1982 ) operated by Air Burundi.
The former German colony of Burundi was transferred by League of Nations Mandate to the Belgian Empire after World War I and is in 2009 bordered by Rwanda, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Although landlocked, Burundi has access to Lake Tanganyika and its population of almost 8 700 000 produce sugar and coffee as the Republic's main exports. The capital of Burundi is Bujumbura.